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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 23 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林炳文,2002。「台灣地區商業銀行合併效率性之分析:資料包絡分析法的應用」。『台灣管理學刊』,1卷,2期,341-356。
  2. 葉彩蓮與陳澤義,1998。「台灣公民營銀行經營效率之比較: 資料包絡分析的應用」。『東吳經濟商學學報』。22期,77-100。
  3. 張石柱、蕭幸金與譚雯華,2004。「以策略觀點探討新舊銀行之經營效率—結合平衡計分卡及資料包絡法」,『當代會計』。5卷,2期,207-234。
  4. 詹維玲與劉景中,2006。「金融自由化後台灣銀行的效率及生產力」,『經濟論文』。34卷,2期,251-300。
  5. Akhigbe, Aigbe, and James Mcnulty, 2005. “Profit Efficiency Sources and Differences Among Small and Large U.S.“ Journal of Economics and Finance, 29(3):289-299.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林姿瑋(2010)。台灣半導體產業之利潤與生產力分解-資料包絡分析法之應用。臺北科技大學商業自動化與管理研究所學位論文。2010。1-45。
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