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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 202 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 石世明(2000)。對臨終者的靈性照顧。安寧療護,5(2),41-56。
  2. 安寧緩和醫療條例(2000)。安寧緩和醫療條例。安寧療護雜誌,5(4),69-75。
  3. 吳茲端、楊泮池(1999)。肺癌。當代醫學,26(11),913-914。
  4. 林靜琪(1996)。癌症末期住院病人自述需要之探討。慈濟醫學院護理學研究所,未出版,臺北。
  5. 胡文郁、邱泰源、釋惠敏、陳慶餘、陳月枝(1999)。從醫護人員角度探討癌末病人之靈性需求。台灣醫學,3(1),8-19。
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林妤玲(2014)。發展及建構中文版癌症病人靈性需求量表。義守大學醫務管理學系學位論文。2014。1-95。 
  2. 余秀珊(2005)。護理人員與心臟衰竭病患對病患健康照護需求及需求滿足程度之差異及其相關因素。臺灣大學護理學研究所學位論文。2005。1-141。 
  3. 林鈺軒(2005)。照顧服務員工作壓力及因應方式之研究。亞洲大學長期照護研究所學位論文。2005。1-186。
  4. 葉寶玲(2011)。華人家庭倫理脈絡下諮商師透過個人心理治療與母親情感關係改變之研究。臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系學位論文。2011。1-422。
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