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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 104 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 李清標,1995,〈從行政落後論政府全面品質管理〉,《中國行政評論》,4(4):141-160。
    2. 李弘暉,1997,〈團隊原理〉,《中國行政評論》,6(2):73-86。
    3. 行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局,。
    4. 林水波、李長晏,2003,〈標竿學習與地方治理能力〉,《中國地方自治》,56(5):4-32。
    5. 翁興利、劉祥得,2003,〈美國顧客滿意與標竿學習--兼論我國地方政府滿意度比較分析〉,《中國行政評論》,12(4):171-204。
    Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
    1. 施志暉(2009)。廢照明光源處理廠質流分析之研究。屏東科技大學環境工程與科學系所學位論文。2009。1-63。 
    2. 陳彥蓁(2011)。台灣公立就業服務站三合一就業服務流程及功能之探討。政治大學勞工研究所學位論文。2011。1-153。
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