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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 140 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王瑞蓮、蕭寧馨(2003)台灣營養調查NAHSIT I 1993-1996 之飲食多樣性與其對營養充足程度的影響。中華民國營養學會雜誌第二十八卷第2期 p.52-64。
  2. 王瑞蓮、劉燦榮、潘文涵、蕭寧馨(2004a)台灣地區老人國民營養健康狀況調查1999-2000:老年人鐵營養狀況和缺乏盛行率。老人營養現況:台灣地區老人營養健康狀況調查1999-2000調查結果。行政院衛生署。pp.193-208。
  3. 行政院衛生署(2003)國人膳食營養素參考攝取量,第六修訂版。台北市。
  4. 行政院衛生署(1995)國民飲食指標,行政院衛生署,台北市。
  5. 吳幸娟、章雅惠、張新儀、潘文涵(2001)台灣地區成人攝入礦物質(鈣、磷、鐵、鈉)之食物來源。1993-1996國民營養健康狀況變遷調查結果。中華營誌26:142-158。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 葉雅雯(2012)。老年人術前貧血對術後不良事件和死亡率關係的研究。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2012。1-66。 
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