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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 45 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 巴恩斯(Barnes, J. G.)(2002)。跟顧客搏感情:街坊小店學來的顧客關係管理(Secrets of customer relationship management: it's all about how you make them feel)(陳正芬、林宜萱譯)。臺北市:麥格羅希爾。(原作2001年出版)
  2. 林東清(民91,2月)。顧客關係管理(CRM)研究的一些相關理論模式與重要議題。資訊管理學報,9(專刊),31-56。
  3. 范惟翔、張瑞鉉、盧建勳(民95,6月)。臺灣連鎖業顧客知識管理理論與實証。中華管理學報,7(2),1-21。
  4. 陳建文、陳美文(民93,8月)。圖書館使用者認知價值、滿意度與忠誠度關係之研究。圖書與資訊學刊,50,32-48。
  5. 曾淑賢(民94,9月)。公共圖書館的創意行銷兼談臺北市立圖書館的創意活動行銷。臺北市立圖書館館訊,23(1),39-67。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳婉菁(2011)。獨居高齡者日常生活資訊尋求與學習特性之探究-臺北市陽明老人公寓個案研究。臺灣師範大學社會教育學系學位論文。2011。1-152。
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