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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 88 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 毛家舲、張鈺(民85)。倫理困境與倫理決策過程。護理雜誌。43(1),40-45。
  2. 胡文郁、邱泰源、呂碧鴻、陳慶餘、謝長堯、陳月枝(民90)。醫護人員對「安寧緩和醫療條例」之教育需求。醫學教育,5(1),21-29。
  3. 許麗齡 (民88)。護理倫理─病人的自主性。護理雜誌,46 (4),57-61。
  4. 郭淑芬(2004)。從癌症病人及家屬觀點探討病情告知之經驗。未發表碩士論文,台灣:台灣大學護理學研究所。
  5. 陳文鍾(民89)。心肺復甦術。台灣醫學,4(2),138-142。
Times Cited (15) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林綉君(2015)。探討中老年病人及家屬對預立醫療指示的認知與決策情形-以中部某醫學中心加護病房為例。成功大學老年學研究所學位論文。2015。1-163。 
  2. 李晴玉(2013)。早產兒父母親參與加護病房醫療決策之經驗。長榮大學護理學系(所)學位論文。2013。1-97。 
  3. 歐淑伊(2013)。加護病房護理人員照顧瀕死病人家屬哀傷反應的意願及其相關因素之初探。長榮大學護理學系(所)學位論文。2013。1-86。 
  4. 黃代泱(2013)。影響加護病房老年重症病人面臨疾病末期時期成年子女簽署DNR同意書意願因素。長榮大學護理學系(所)學位論文。2013。1-71。 
  5. 許美柔(2008)。成人加護病房護理人員提供善終照護模式之探討。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2008。1-211。 
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