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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 103 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 7. 林達德。1992。生物細胞內凍結現象之機率模式與分析。農業機械學刊 1(4):278-289。
  2. 12. 黃清旺、連振昌、郭鳳瑞、洪滉祐。1995。連霧之黏彈性質(一)負荷鬆弛特性之研究。農業機械學刊 4(2):47-57。
  3. 15. 楊秀珠、吳育郎、黃裕銘、鄭慶生。1999。芒果綜合管理。25-53。臺灣:臺灣省農業藥物毒物試驗所。
  4. 24. Ay, C. 1992. Measuring changes in physical properties of milk during coagulation by ultrasonic analysis. PhD dissertation. Wisconsin-Madison University, Department of Agricultural Engineering, U.S.A
  5. 25. Ay, C. and S. Gunasekaran. 1994. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements for estimating milk coagulation time. Transactions of the ASAE 37: 857-862.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 郭鳳瑞(2008)。超音波應用於果汁品質之檢測。中興大學生物產業機電工程學系所學位論文。2008。1-69。 
  2. 王炯文(2012)。肌肉食物冷凍與解凍過程的數學模擬。臺灣大學生物產業機電工程學研究所學位論文。2012。1-62。
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