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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 63 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 印永翔、陳思遐(2002),創新與研發、知識外溢之因果分析—以G20國家集團為例,經濟論文叢刊,第40卷第4期,515-538。
    2. 林惠玲、詹立宇、謝玉玟(2009),產業聚集與廠商研發活動之研究–台灣電子廠商之驗證,人文及社會科學集刊,21:521-554。
    3. 林利真(2017),產業聚集與生產力之關係:以臺灣知識密集型服務產業為例,臺灣大學經濟學研究所學位論文。
    4. 許秀暖(2007),台灣半導體產業研發外溢垂直效果之實證研究,國立中央大學產業經濟研究所碩士論文。
    5. 楊志海、陳忠榮(2002),研究發展、專利與生產力,經濟論文叢刊,30(1), 27-48。
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