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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 203 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [日]濱下武志著,高淑娟、孫彬譯,《中國近代經濟史研究:清末海關財政與通商口岸市場圈》,南京:江蘇人民出版社,2006初版。
  2. [美]高彥頤(Dorothy Ko)著,李志生譯,《閨塾師:明末清初江南的才女文化》,南京:江蘇人民出版社,2005初版。
  3. 衣若蘭,《史學與性別:《明史•列女傳》與明代女性史之建構》,太原:山西教育出版社,2011初版。
  4. [美]柏清韻(Bettine Birge)著,柳立言譯,〈元代的收繼婚與貞節觀的復興〉,《宋元時代的法律和社會》,臺北:國立編譯館,2001初版,頁387-428。
  5. [美]柯麗德(Katherine Carlitz)著,王碩譯,〈明中期江南的祠堂、統治階層特點及寡婦守節的流行〉,收入伊沛霞(Patricia Ebrey)、姚平主編,《當代西方漢學研究集萃•婦女史卷》,上海:上海古籍出版社,2012初版,頁111-146。
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