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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 64 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王泰昌與劉嘉雯 (2002),會計師考試錄取人數改變數對審計市場影響之實證研究,中山管理評論,第10卷,第1期,頁93-126。
  2. 劉景中 (2008),「銀行集中度與台灣銀行業的獲利性及風險」,經濟論文叢 刊,第36期第3卷,頁325-355。
  3. 劉景中 (2010),「銀行集中度及銀行效率對銀行市場競爭度的影響:臺灣實證研究」,未刊出論文。
  4. Al-Muharrami, S., K. Matthew and Y. Khabari, (2006), “Market Structure And Competitive Conditions in the Arab GCC Banking System,” Journal of Banking and Finance, 30, pp.3487-50.
  5. Banker, R. D., H. Chang and R. Natarajan (2007), “Estimating DEA Technical and Allocative Inefficiency Using Aggregate Cost or Revenue Data,” Journal of Productivity Analysis, 27, 115-121.
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