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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 87 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2. 吳克振(2001)譯,品牌管理,台北:華泰文化。(譯自Kevin Lane Leller, Strategic brand management: building, measuring and managing brand equity(1998))。
  2. 5. 周惠莉(2003),「五大人格特質、性別角色與轉換型領導關聯性之研究」,中原大學未出版碩士論文。
  3. 7. 張愛華、何少天、吳加州(2010),網路企業品牌形象之研究-以Web 2.0網站為例,電子商務研究,第八卷第二期,頁259-290。
  4. 10. 陳細細、邱玉娟,2008,「探討不同人格特質之網路購物消費者在信任、滿意度及忠誠度之間關聯性研究」,國立虎尾科技大學學報,7(3),107-24。
  5. 11. 梁鐿徽、王宏華、陳安安,2010,「建構線上遊戲服務品質量表」,Electronic Commerce Studies,8(4),499-519。
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