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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 172 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王信仁,1992,醫學中心與區域醫院之效率評估--資料包絡法之運用,高雄醫學院公共衛生研究所碩士論文。
  2. 王媛慧、李文福,2006,我國大學院校技術效率之研究--資料包絡分析法的應用,輔仁管理評論,第13卷第1期:163-185。
  3. 王智良,2004,會計師事務所經營效率影響因素之探討,私立靜宜大學會計學系碩士論文。
  4. 李文福、王媛慧,1998,台灣地區公私立醫學中心與區域醫院生產力變動之研究--無母數Malmquist指數之應用,經濟論文,第26卷: 243-269。
  5. 李建然、謝兆恩,2004,台北市立國中教育經費運用及預算控制績效評估—隨機邊界成本函數之應用,當代會計,第5卷第1期:57-86。
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