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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 92 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王榮春、孫敏華(2003)。360度回饋評量制度對軍事院校學生才能評估與發展的應用-以某軍事院校學生部學生為例。復興崗學報,77,23-52。
  2. 張裕隆、劉岡憬(2001)。360度回饋與傳統上司評鑑對領導效能預測能力之比較。應用心理研究,10,167-197。
  3. 謝淑芬(2003)。三百六十度回饋應用於我國國中、國小教師績效評核之可行性研究。私立元智大學管理研究所碩士論文,未出版,桃園縣。
  4. Aldakhilallah, K. A., & Parente, D. H. (2002). Redesigning a square peg:total quality management performance appraisals. Total Quality Management, 13(1), 39-51.
  5. Analoui, F., & Fell, P. (2002). Have you been appraised? A survey of the university administrative staff. The International Journal of Educational Management, 16(6), 279-287.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何廷鈞(2012)。應用360o回饋於台商企業高階主管評鑑之研究:以一位金融業高階主管為例。淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班學位論文。2012。1-63。 
  2. 姚采町(2010)。運用三百六十度回饋機制於教師教學改 進之行動研究 -以桃園縣一位國民小學教師為例。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2010。1-225。 
  3. 楊惠文(2007)。應用360˚回饋於大學教師教學評鑑可行性之研究:以一位大學教師為例。淡江大學會計學系碩士班學位論文。2007。1-161。
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