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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 239 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 王啟明、李玫憲(2014)〈歐盟氣候治理中的責任分享問題:利益與規範的整合性分析〉,《國家發展研究》,第13卷第2期,頁77-113。
  2. 2. 田口常正(2000)〈日本「21世紀光計畫」白光LED照明研究〉,《光連Optolin》,第27期,頁1-5。
  3. 3. 光電協進會(2010)〈日亞化學專利訴訟觀察〉,《光連雙月刊》,第90期,頁63-65。
  4. 4. 呂紹旭(2012)〈歐債危機下LED區域產業現況〉,《光連雙月刊》,第98期,頁46-50。
  5. 1. 方正榮(2002)《高雄港發展國際物流中心競爭優勢之研究-從資源基礎理論觀點》,國立成功大學交通管理科學研究所碩士論文。
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