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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 105 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2 林隆儀、簡任群(2004),服務品質、關係品質、關係價值與顧客忠誠度的關係之整合分析-以行動電信產業之消費者為例,真理財經學報,11,頁73-112。
  2. 4 孫明源(2003),服務品質、服務價值、滿意度與顧客行為意向關係之研究,國立成功大學電信管理研究所碩士論文。
  3. 5 陳永(2005),服務品質之探討,品質月刊,41(5),頁63-65。
  4. 7 黃靖文(2004),量販店服務品質、顧客滿意度與忠誠度間關係之研究-以大台北地區大潤發量販店為例,私立大同大學事業經營研究所碩士論文。
  5. 8尤奕清(2005),服務品質與信任對顧客忠誠度的影響-以奇摩拍賣網站為例,私立大同大學事業經營研究所碩士論文。
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