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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 35 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 江南志(2005)。從民營化觀點探討促參法中公部門的角色-以代理理論分析(未出版之碩士論文)。成功大學,台南市。
  2. 吳宜恬(2008)。以代理人理論探討社會福利公設民營之契約管理—以內政部宜蘭教養院為例(未出版之碩士論文)。政治大學,台北市。
  3. 胡龍騰、黃瑋瑩與潘中道(譯) (2000)。研究方法步驟化學習指南(原作者:Ranjit Kumar)。台北市:學富文化。
  4. 莊宜縈(2011)。建立與為係公私夥伴關係因素之研究:多元各案分析(未出版之碩士論文)。淡江大學,新北市。
  5. 曾冠球(2011)。為甚麼淪為不情願夥伴?─公私夥伴關係失齡個案的制度解釋。台灣民主季刊,第八卷第四期,頁1-52。
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