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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 74 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 中國教育學會、中華民國師範教育學會合編(2004)。教師專業成長問題研究。台北:學富文化。
  2. 內政部(2003)。兒童及少年福利法。
  3. 內政部統計處(1997)。中華民國85年台灣地區兒童生活狀況調查報告。
  4. 林麗婷(2002)。國中公民與道德科教師經濟教育專業能力之研究-以高雄地區為研究。國立台灣師範大學公民訓育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  5. 馬祖琳、吳怡真(2000)。課後托育機構保育人員基本能力分析。生活應用科技學刊,1(2),205-219。
Times Cited (6) 〈TOP〉
  1. 趙偲媛(2014)。私立課後托育教師專業能力指標建構之研究。淡江大學教育科技學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2014。1-126。 
  2. 單文正(2009)。後期中等教育全民國防教師應備學科專門知能之研究。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2009。1-183。
  3. 劉佐鳳(2011)。臺北縣國民教育階段特教組長角色知覺與特教專業知能之研究。臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2011。1-194。
  4. 許惠婷(2012)。課後照顧服務人員在職進修情況、需求與困難。朝陽科技大學幼兒保育系學位論文。2012。1-182。
  5. 黃東烱(2013)。國民中學學生課後輔導參與之研究─以臺中縣立國民中學為例。亞洲大學經營管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-129。
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