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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 81 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1.于宗先(2004)。台灣幼年人口銳減的警訊。經濟前瞻雙月刊,第3期,26-31頁。
  2. 4.文超順(2006)。台灣地區縣市國民中小學超額教師介聘之研究。學校行政雙月刊,第45期,237-246頁。
  3. 7.伍嘉崎(2007)。臺北市私立高職教師因應少子化之意見調查研究。國立台灣師範大學工業教育學系碩士論文。
  4. 8.何金針、唐壐惠(2006) 。少子化趨勢對幼稚園經營之衝擊及因應策略。學校行政雙月刊,第43期,242-252頁。
  5. 14.周玉霜(2006)。藍海策略模式活化學校創新經營。學校行政雙月刊,第46期,220-232頁。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 郭樹澤(2015)。保險業務員銷售商業長期看護保險意願及認知之研究。屏東科技大學高階經營管理碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-83。 
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