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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 108 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳宗立(民88)。國民中學行政人員分享決策與學校效能關係之研究。中等教育學報,6,33-67。
  2. 吳明清(民93)。知變、應變、求變:課程改革能力與教師專業化的初步架構。
  3. 吳清山(民87)。建立教師專業權威之探索-談專業知能、專業自主與專業倫理。初等教育學刊,6,41-58。
  4. 侯世昌(民91)。國民小學家長教育期望、參與學校教育與學校效能之研究。國立政治大學教育研究所博士論文,未出版。
  5. 廖春文、俞國華(民91)。國民小學教師知識管理與專業成長之研究。國民教育研究集刊,10,63-90。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 朱元之(2007)。學校組織文化與教育人員專業成長關係之研究-以國防大學管理學院為例。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2007。1-204。 
  2. 石啟宏(2007)。國民小學組織氣氛、教師知識分享及 教師專業成長之關聯性研究 --以臺北縣為例。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2007。1-212。 
  3. 張桂惠(2009)。學校行銷組合與效能之關聯研究---以桃園縣偏遠地區小學為例。元智大學管理研究所學位論文。2009。1-120。
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