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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 205 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王麗雲、潘慧玲。2000。〈教師彰權益能的概念與實施策略〉,《教育研究集刊》。第44輯。網址:
  2. 《全球客家文化會議實錄》。2002。台北市:行政院客家委員會。附錄:媒體相關報導。
  3. 何大安。2007。〈語言活力通說〉,《語言政策的多元文化思考》。台北市:中央研究院 語言學研究所。頁:1-6。
  4. 林金花、嚴嘉楓、陳美花。2005。〈質性研究方法:訪談模式與實施步驟分析〉,《身心障礙研究》。Vol. 3(2): 122-136。
  5. 施正鋒。2000。《臺灣人的民族認同》。台北:前衛出版社。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉國裕(2008)。客家文化體驗課程之研究。屏東科技大學客家文化產業研究所學位論文。2008。1-151。 
  2. 賴麗萍(2011)。走在文化心靈之旅的道路上:三位馬來西亞第二代華人的生命歷程與文化認同之敘說。臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系學位論文。2011。1-353。
  3. 古秀上(2012)。客語薪傳師團隊協同教學之建構與實踐─以客語魔法學院為例。臺灣師範大學台灣語文學系學位論文。2012。1-290。
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