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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 76 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 呂明、陳紅雯譯(1992)。Goble, F. G.著。第三思潮︰馬斯洛心理學(The third force: The psychology of abraham maslow)。台北市:師大書苑。
  2. 呂詩琦(2010)。國民中學教師覺知校長服務領導、學校組織氣氛與教師組織公民行為關係之研究。未出版之碩士論文,國立政治大學學校行政碩士在職專班,台北市。
  3. 周守民(1999)。新世紀的管理─談僕性領導。護理雜誌,46(2),72-76。
  4. 胡愈寧、周慧貞譯(2004)。Robert Greenleaf著。僕人領導學:僕人領導的理論與實踐(Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness)。台北市:城邦文化。
  5. 陳怡靜(2010)。臺北市國民中學主任服務領導與處室成員組織承諾相關之研究。未出版之碩士論文,國立臺北教育大學教育政策與管理研究所,台北市。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳汝盈(2017)。國中學生知覺導師服務領導、學生人際關係與班級歸屬感關係之研究:以桃園市為例。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2017。1-239。
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