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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 126 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 涂敏芬,2010,實踐策略,改變制度:工研院與創新前瞻機制的個案分析,博士論文,新竹市:國立清華大學。
  2. 涂敏芬、洪世章,2012,「『有』中生『有』:工研院如何運用BBC策略改造科專制度」,管理學報,第29卷第3期,頁229-254。
  3. 陳泳丞、朱月英、高永謀、許立佳等人,2013,跨產業談創新:從變局到新局,台北市,商訊文化事業股份有限公司。
  4. Ahn, S. I. 1995. A new program in cooperative research between academia and industry in Korea, involving Centers of Excellence. Technovation, 15(4): 241-257.
  5. Alavi, M. & Carlson, P. 1992. A review of MIS research and disciplinary development. Journal of Management Information Systems, 8(4): 45-62.
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