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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 93 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳育偉(2003)。家長教育選擇權之研究-以花蓮縣為例。慈濟大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,花蓮。
  2. 吳明隆(2004)。知識創新時代對學校創新經營的啟示。學校行政雙月刊,31,134-146。
  3. 吳清山(2002)。知識經濟與教育發展。初等教育學刊,12,1-18。
  4. 吳清山(2004)。學校創新經營的理念與策略。教師天地,128,30-44。
  5. 吳清山、林天祐(1997)。組織變革-教育名詞。教育資料與研究,18,62。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳德涵(2015)。台北幼兒園之日語學習現況調查-以家長的意識調查為中心-。淡江大學日本語文學系碩士班學位論文。2015。1-130。 
  2. 鄭筱慧(2011)。從服務品質與學校形象的觀點探討學校創新經營對選校意願之影響─以桃園縣公立國民中學為例。臺北大學國際企業研究所學位論文。2011。1-163。
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