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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 65 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王志平(2002)。網路行銷導論。台北:全華。
  2. 吳肇銘(2009)。以服務學習觀點探討協助弱勢族群與非營利組織進行網路行銷之研究─以喜憨兒中秋月餅網路行銷專案為例。資訊與管理科學,2卷2期,22-40。
  3. 呂朝賢(2008)。社會企業與創業精神:意義與評論。國立政治大學社會學報,第39期,81-117。
  4. 李昀叡(1998) 。網際網路圖書購物公司行銷管理研究。元智大學資訊管理研究所碩士論文。
  5. 邱靖娟(2006)。從社會企業觀點探討地方博物館合作關係-以「台北縣立鶯歌陶瓷博物館」為例。南華大學非營利事業管理研究所碩士論文。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 鐘心潔(2013)。非營利組織社會事業化的理想與現實---以社福型組織為例。臺北大學公共行政暨政策學系學位論文。2013。1-266。
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