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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 127 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 20.Ranjit Kumar著;胡龍騰、黃瑋瑩、潘中道譯(2008)。研究方法:步驟化學習指南(十版)。台北:學富文化。
  2. 3.王靜怡(2007)。公共層次個人帳戶基金運用中政府介入之探討:以新加坡公積金為例。台灣社會福利學刊,第5卷,第6期,頁67-102。
  3. 15.陳昱名(2006)。新加坡之中央公積金制度之分析研究-ㄧ個全球化體系的觀點。中山人文社會科學期刊,第14卷,第2期,頁99-132。
  4. 18.黃子庭(2007)。新加坡社會福利政策:國家統合主義下的國家與社會團體互動分析。經社法制論叢,第20期,頁111-150。
  5. 29.謝維鈞、石振國(2007)。國民年金方案的比較研究-政策論證的分析途徑。中華行政學報,第4期,頁81- 101。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何宗翰(2015)。我國國民年金A式給付制度對短中長期財務影響之探討。淡江大學保險學系保險經營碩士班學位論文。2015。1-161。 
  2. 賴俊帆(2010)。臺灣年金系統的比較研究:福利階層化的觀點。臺灣大學國家發展研究所學位論文。2010。1-125。 
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