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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 76 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1.SGS(2013)。SGS Qualicert服務驗證系統。台北市:SGS 台灣檢驗科技股份有限公司。
  2. 28.楊永妙、賈凱傑(2006)。應用神秘客調查法於服務業服務品質-以國內航空公司第一線電話服務為例。第 10 屆科際整合管理研討會論文集, 249-264。
  3. 29.盤天培、林世斌(2002)。中小企業推行ISO 9000品質管理系統失敗原因探討及解決之道。品質月刊,5(38)。
  4. 35.謝良鳳(2010)。神秘顧客調查法應用於便利商店服務品質查核之研究(碩士論文,國立臺北大學,2010)。
  5. 37.蘇儒昇(2010。汽車零組件業者實施ISO 9001:2008品質管理系統之營運績效研究-以台南地區為例(碩士論文,長榮大學,2010)
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