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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 103 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 內政部(2005)。中華民國九十四年臺閩地區兒童及少年生活狀況調查報告分析。臺北:內政部。
  2. 呂慧珍(2004)。國民小學實施課後托育之個案研究-以臺中縣偏遠地區一所國民小學為例(未出版之碩士論文)。靜宜大學,臺中。
  3. 李孟豐、連廷嘉(2010)。攜手計畫—課後扶助方案實施麗成語成效之研究。教育實踐與研究,23(1),115-144。
  4. 李新民(2003)。課後托育機構整合國小課程之初探。幼兒保育學刊,1,19-38。
  5. 林惠齡(2009)。國小低年級學童參與學校課後照顧班家長滿意度之研究~以台中縣為例(未出版之碩士論文)。朝陽科技大學,臺中縣。
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