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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 41 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 3.李沃牆、李莠苓(2011),「應用Copula-GJR-GARCH模型於黃金與白銀期貨之避險」,台灣期貨與衍生性商品學刊,第12期,頁28-65。
  2. 4.李亦屏(2004) ,黃金期貨之避險分析,中原大學企業管理系碩士論文。
  3. 5.李美杏、丁聖祐(2010) ,關聯結構與適投資組合-Copula 模型的應用,統計與資訊評論 ,第13卷, 頁69-100
  4. 6.巫春洲、劉炳麟、楊奕農 (2009) ,「農產品期貨動態避險策略的評價」,農業與經濟,第42卷,頁 39-62。
  5. 12.柯星妤(2013),金磚五國之期貨避險績效應用Copula-based GJR-GARCH模型,淡江大學財務金融系碩士倫文。
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