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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 241 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 20.陳靜瑜,美國(台北:三民書局,2007)。
  2. 26.賈士蘅,Alan Axelrod 原著,美國史(台北:台灣商務印書館,2007)。
  3. 32.鍾玉玨、楊明暐、潘勛、諶悠文、陳文和、尹德瀚等譯,Hillary Rodham Clinton原著,活出歷史-希拉蕊回憶錄(台北:時報文化公司,2005)。
  4. 1.鄒念祖,「美國國會彈劾柯林頓總統個案研究」,問題與研究月刊,第三十八卷第五期(一九九九年五月):17∼29。
  5. 2.陳恆鈞,「美國國會委員會的議事運作過程:三個理論觀點的探討」,問題與研究雙月刊,第四十一卷第二期(二○○二年三、四月):69∼88。
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