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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 147 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 余明助、陳婉青。洪啟強. (2014)。 正向心理資本, 工作敬業心, 服務氣候與服務導向組織公民行為之研究-以電信產業門市人員為例. 服務業管理評論。(11),25-42.
  2. 林岳欣(2009)。大學學務主管僕人式領導、部屬工作士氣及服務導向組織公民行為關係模式之研究─以主管幽默為干擾變項,長榮大學高階管理碩士在職專班碩士論文。
  3. 林思伶(2004)。 析論僕人式/服務領導 (Servant–Leadership) 的概念發展與研究. 高雄師大學報, (16), 39-57。
  4. 黃義翔、 許政斌(2013)。 [領導, 始終是關於人的事]-以人本為導向之領導理論: 僕人領導對運動教練的啟示. 臺灣體育論壇, (6), 1-12。
  5. 黃麗欽(2010)。 僕人式領導理論, 模型與應用層面的探討. 南亞學報, (30), 243-260。
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