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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 29 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 10.陳禹廷(2003),我國產險業經營績效之研究-資料包絡分析法之應用,朝陽科技大學保險金融管理系。
  2. 17.戴天亮(2002),高雄醫學大學健康科學院公共衛生研究所碩士論文,以資料包絡法模式評估各臨床科經營效率以某醫學中心為例。
  3. 1. Banker, R. D., Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. (1984), “Some Models for Estimating Technical and Scale Inefficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis”, Management Science, 3, pp.1078-1092.
  4. 2. Cooper,W.W., Deng, H., Gu, B., Li, S., and Thrall, R.M. (2001) “Using DEA to improve the management of congestion in Chinese industries (1981-1997).”Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 35, pp. 227-242.
  5. 3. Farrell, M.J. (1957), “The Measurement of Productive Efficiency”,
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 汪芝宜(2010)。台中縣太平市枇杷節經營之成效:績效衡量觀點。淡江大學公共行政學系公共政策碩士班學位論文。2010。1-141。 
  2. 廖乾羽(2010)。台灣政府機關能源效率分析-追趕效率之應用。臺北科技大學優質電力供電產業研發碩士專班學位論文。2010。1-61。
  3. 夏國釗(2011)。台灣政府機關能源效率分析-非意欲因素模型之應用。臺北科技大學優質電力供電產業研發碩士專班學位論文。2011。1-59。
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