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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 82 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 邱銘乾(2008)。台灣企業創業家的人格特質、創業家精神導向、社會資本對創業績效之影響。國立臺北大學企業管理學系碩士在職專班碩士學位論文。
  2. 洪清德(2004)。使命感,客戶網路和供應商網路:影響我國電子資訊產業代工和自創品牌策略選擇因素的探討。管理學報,21(4),451-476。
  3. 陳基祥(2013)。創業願景與創業績效之關聯性研究。創業管理研究,8(3),57-84。
  4. 楊敏里、黃義俊、賴怡旨(2009)。創業動機、創業導向與創業績效之關聯性研究。創業管理研究,4(3),55-81。
  5. 蔡宜真(2014)。品牌行銷、客製化、網絡關係、組織文化與組織績效關係之研究—以Z公司廚具部為例。國立中正大學企業管理學系碩士班碩士學位論文。
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