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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 71 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1.司徒達賢(2001)。策略管理新論:觀念架構與分析方法。台北:智勝文化事業股份有限公司。
  2. 5.吳淑貞(2002)。產業網絡、群聚現象與企業競爭力關係之研究-以兩岸製鞋業為例。未出版之碩士論文,桃園:中原大學企業管理學研究所。
  3. 10.林怡菁(2003)。台灣量販店成長策略、競爭策略與行銷組合關係之研究。未出版之碩士論文,桃園:中原大學企業管理學研究所。
  4. 12.侯政宏(2001)。大陸台商群聚現象之研究-以蘇州地區監視器業為例。未出版之碩士論文,桃園:中原大學企業管理學研究所。
  5. 17.許文艷(2003)。影響量販店與供應商議價因素之研究。未出版之碩士論文,台南:國立成功大學企業管理研究所。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 許維穎(2010)。探討零售業中進入與退出事件對市場既有者之影響-以台北市百貨公司為例。臺灣大學商學研究所學位論文。2010。1-111。
  2. 莊婷婷(2010)。台灣傳統市場的場所精神之研究。中原大學建築研究所學位論文。2010。1-144。
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