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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 98 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林嘉玲(2000)• 自費安養機構老人睡眠品質及其相關因素之探討 •未出版碩士論文,台灣大學護理學研究所,台北。
  2. 林嘉玲、蘇東平、張媚(2003)•機構老人之睡眠品質及其相關因素•臺灣醫學,
  3. 林嘉玲、潘美玉、張媚(2006)•社區老人睡眠品質之探討•臺灣醫學,10(4),
  4. 陳美妃、王秀紅(1995)•老年婦女睡眠品質及其相關因素•護理研究,3(4),
  5. 郭清輝 (2008) •第2型糖尿病與代謝症候群•內分泌暨糖尿病學會會刊,17-18。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 汪宜靜(2013)。第2型糖尿病患者之糖尿病控制、疾病適應、睡眠衛生習慣與其睡眠品質之相關性探討。臺灣師範大學健康促進與衛生教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2013。1-86。
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