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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 23 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1 Matsuda T, Saika K: Comparison of time trends in prostate cancer incidence (1973-2002) in asia, from cancer incidence in five continents, vols iv-ix. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2009;39:468-469.
  2. 2 Matsuda T, Saika K: Comparison of time trends in prostate cancer incidence (1973-1997) in east asia, europe and USA, from cancer incidence in five continents vols iv-viii. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2007;37:556-557.
  3. 3 Stamey TA, Yang N, Hay AR, McNeal JE, Freiha FS, Redwine E: Prostate-specific antigen as a serum marker for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. N Engl J Med 1987;317:909-916.
  4. 4 Luboldt HJ, Bex A, Swoboda A, Husing J, Rubben H: Early detection of prostate cancer in germany: A study using digital rectal examination and 4.0 ng/ml prostate-specific antigen as cutoff. Eur Urol 2001;39:131-137.
  5. 5 Djavan B, Zlotta A, Remzi M, Ghawidel K, Basharkhah A, Schulman CC, Marberger M: Optimal predictors of prostate cancer on repeat prostate biopsy: A prospective study of 1,051 men. J Urol 2000;163:1144-1148; discussion 1148-1149.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 蔡銘順(2011)。從血清攝護腺特定抗原介於4-10 ng/ml病人中探討有效的攝護腺癌預測因子。亞洲大學長期照護研究所在職專班學位論文。2011。1-35。
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