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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 133 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Abushita AA, Daood HG & Biacs PA. 2000. Change in carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins in tomato as a function of varietal and technological factors. J Agric Food Chem 48(6):2075-2081.
  2. Abushita AA, Hebshi EA, Daood HG & Biacs PA. 1997. Determination of antioxidant vitamins in tomatoes. Food Chem 60(2):207-212.
  3. Agarwal S & Rao AV. 1998. Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study. Lipids 33(10):981-984.
  4. Ahuja KD, Pittaway JK & Ball MJ. 2006. Effects of olive oil and tomato lycopene combination on serum lycopene, lipid profile, and lipid oxidation. Nutrition 22(3):259-265.
  5. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK & Hagen TM. 1993. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90(17):7915-7922.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 羅宇展(2009)。檄樹(諾麗)果實自然發酵過程中果汁與乾燥果肉所含 酚類化合物之變化。國立臺灣大學園藝學研究所學位論文。2009。1-112。 
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