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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 234 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 1. Cardoso, F. H., Faletto E., Dependency and Development in Latin America, 1979。
    2. 7. 王信賢,〈傾斜的三角:當代中國社會問題與政策困境〉,《中國大陸研究》,第51卷第3期,2008年9月,pp.37-56。
    3. 1. Burchardt, T., J. Le Grand, and D. Piachaud, “Degress of Exclusion: Developing a Dynamic, Multidimensional Measure,” in J. Hills, J. Le Grand, and D. Piachaud eds., Understanding Social Exclusion, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp.30-43.
    4. 2. Room, G., “Poverty and Social Exclusion: The New European Agenda for Policy and Research,” in G. Room ed., Beyond the Threshould: The Measurement and Analysis of Social Exclusion, Bristol: The Policy Press, 1995, pp. 1-9.
    5. 4. Kwong, Julia, “The Integration of Migrant Children in Beijing Schools,” In Gerard A., Postiglione ed., Education and Social Change in China: Inequality in a Market Economy, London: M.E. Sharpe, 2006, p.163-178.
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 林語桐(2015)。中國大陸城市初級中學教育的戶籍不平等:四川省成都市本地子女與農民工子女之比較研究。清華大學社會學研究所學位論文。2015。1-233。 
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