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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 19 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王素芸(1995)。多重目標決策模式應用於國民中學入學方式選擇之研究。政治大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  2. 李淑玲、闕月清(2006)。台北市國民中學體育教師專業成長現況及需求之差異研究,大專體育學刊,5,15-30。
  3. 李惠淑(2003)。國民中學教師教學評鑑規準之研究。國立臺灣師範大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  4. 何福田、羅瑞玉(1996)。教育改革與教師專業化。收錄於中華民國師範教育學會主編:教育專業。台北:師大書苑。
  5. 吳清山、林天祐(1999)。教育名詞:教育指標。教育資料與研究,29,48-49。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 簡黛玲(2014)。國小代理教師專業能力之調查研究。中正大學教育學研究所學位論文。2014。1-124。
  2. 賴佳秀(2014)。少子女化時代國民小學教師專業素質內涵之建構。中正大學課程研究所學位論文。2014。1-144。
  3. 侯佩宜(2016)。兒童產業實習專業知能檢核指標之建構:以親子館為例。屏東科技大學幼兒保育系所學位論文。2016。1-95。
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