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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 124 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 洪家殷,行政罰法論,增訂二版,2006年11月。
    2. 陳新民,行政法學總論,七版,2000年。
    3. 黃俊杰,行政罰法,2006年3月。
    4. 何建志,懲罰性賠償金之法理與運用-論最適賠償金額之判定,國立台灣大學法學論叢,31卷3期,2002年5月。
    5. 城仲模,奧國行政罰制度析論,收於「行政法之基礎理論」,增訂出版,1991年10月。
    Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
    1. 盧秀虹(2015)。論公司負責人變更之公法上金錢給付義務行政執行責任問題。臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文。2015。1-140。 
    2. 賴怡雯(2009)。行政法上狀態責任之研究──以建築法為例。政治大學法律學研究所學位論文。2009。1-158。
    3. 黃郁炘(2009)。租稅秩序罰之責任條件與歸屬。臺北大學法律學系學位論文。2009。1-170。
    4. 林泚醇(2012)。論法人犯罪及其處罰。中正大學犯罪防治學系學位論文。2012。1-189。
    Altmetrics 〈TOP〉
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