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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 33 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. Abernathy, W.J.(1978). The productivity dilemma: Roadblock to Innovation in the Automobile Industry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    2. Abernathy,W.J. and Utterback, J.M. (1978). Patterns of industrial innovation. Technology review, 80, 7, 40-7.
    3. Alexander Nikolenko ,Brian H. Kleiner (1996).Global trends in organizational design Work Study 45(7) pp. 23
    4. Bayus, B.L. (1998). An analysis of product lifetimes in a technologically dtnamic industry, Management science, 44(6), pp. 763-775
    5. Benbasat I., Goldstein D.K. & Mead M.(1987) The case research strategy in studies of information system, MIS Quarterly,September, pp.369-374.
    Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
    1. 簡盈安(2009)。以自有技術開發產品之轉型方式及組織的因應—以傳統產業為例。清華大學工業工程與工程管理學系學位論文。2009。1-140。 
    2. 陳佳勝(2011)。代工廠商關鍵顧客管理之探討-以辦公室設備T公司為例。政治大學國際經營與貿易研究所學位論文。2011。1-81。
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