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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 71 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李奉儒 (2008)。 英國中小學教師素質管理制度之研究。 輯於楊深坑、王秋絨、李奉儒 (編)。 中小學教師素質管理制度比較研究。17-49,臺北: 高等教育。
  2. 李明珠 (2006)。 國民小學實施 : 教師教學專業評鑑之硏究。未出版碩士論文, 國立臺北教育大學。
  3. 李惠淑 (2003)。 國民中學教師教學評鑑規準之硏究。未出版碩士論文, 國立臺灣師範大學。
  4. 李榮東 (2003)。 國民中學教師教學評鑑內涵之硏究。 未出版碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學。
  5. 洪啟昌 (2004)。 從課程改革談教學評鑑應有的思維與作法。學校行政, 30,115-126。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 郭怡女勻(2014)。國高中音樂教師專業評鑑之研究-以新北市為例。臺北藝術大學藝術與人文教育研究所學位論文。2014。1-158。 
  2. 馮文秀(2011)。新北市高中英文教師教學專業能力指標建構之研究。政治大學英語教學碩士在職專班學位論文。2011。1-182。
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