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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 31 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 1. 黃台心、姜麗智、Kuan-Chen Chen、邱柏豪,An Application of the Meta-frontier Cost Function to the Study of Bank Efficiencies and Technology Gaps in 16 European Countries.,管理評論,2009,已接受刊登。
    2. 2. 陳谷劦、楊浩彥 (2008) 共同邊界 Malmquist 指數的延伸 : 跨國總體資料的實證分析,經濟論文叢刊,36:4,551-580。
    3. 3. 陳盈秀 (2007),OECD 與APEC 諸國總體生產效率與總要素生產力之研究─共同邊界函數之應用,淡江大學產業經濟學系,研究所博士論文。
    4. 4. 邱郁芳 (2006),應用共同成本函數探討東亞六國銀行業之生產效率,淡江大學經濟學系,研究所碩士論文。
    5. 5. 邱柏豪 (2006),應用共同成本函數探討歐洲16國銀行業的生產效率,交通大學財務金融學系,研究所碩士論文。
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 戴玉潔(2011)。共同邊界資料包絡分析法在運輸業之應用-以國內航線之經營效率為例。中央大學土木工程學系學位論文。2011。1-150。
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