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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 72 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 呂添富(2007)。新共服務理論之探討-公共性與倫理之途徑。國立政治大學公共行政學系所碩士論文,未出版,臺北。
  2. 吳瓊恩(2007)。建構無預謀的行政倫理:新公共服務五對概念的比較與檢驗。公共行政學報,第23期,頁1-28。
  3. 周陽山(2002)。從公民文化到公民社會--一項現實的考察,2008年4月30日取自中國政治學會,網址:。
  4. 許立一(2004)。地方治理與公民參與的實踐:政治後現代性危機的反思與解決。公共行政學報,第10期,頁63-94。
  5. 黃惠雯等(譯)(2003)。最新質性方法與研究(Benjamin F. Carbtree & William L. Miller原著)。臺北:韋伯文化事業出版社。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳惠卿(2017)。臺灣直轄市分權治理之研究—以新北市為例。臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文。2017。1-274。 
  2. 林麗君(2016)。我國區里治理網絡關係探討-以臺北市松山區基層建議案為例。臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文。2016。1-297。 
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