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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 167 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2. 王文杰,嬗變中之中國大陸法制,2004年。
  2. 11. 許忠信,從德國法之觀點看我國專利權侵害之損害賠償責任,台北大學法學論叢,61期,2007年3月。
  3. 12. 陳聰富,美國法上之懲罰性賠償金制度,收錄於陳聰富、陳忠五、沈冠伶、許仕宦合著,美國懲罰性賠償金判決之承認及執行,2004年12月。
  4. 17. 馮震宇,美國專利訴訟制度與程序要件,資訊法務透析,1995年8月號,1995年8月。
  5. 22. 劉尚志、王文杰、陳建宏,中國專利侵權損害賠償之實證研究,2008年全國科技法律研討會論文集,2008年11月。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳明珠(2010)。整體市場價值法則於合理權利金計算之適用-從美國專利實務見解談起。清華大學科技法律研究所學位論文。2010。1-97。 
  2. 陳群顯(2012)。專利侵權損害賠償數額認定方法之建構。交通大學科技管理研究所學位論文。2012。1-246。 
  3. 陳映蓁(2011)。中國專利侵權訴訟損害賠償之研究。政治大學智慧財產研究所學位論文。2011。1-178。
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