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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 70 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 方永泉(2003)。〈從遊戲意義的轉折來反思當代遊戲文化的特徵及其引發
    2. 許恬忻(2007)。〈企業公關人員如何使用 MSN:以證券公關人員為例〉,《廣告學研究》,28:59-86。
    3. 翁鵲嵐、鄭玉屏、張志傑譯(2005)。《情感設計》。台北:田園城市。(原書Norman, D. A. [2003]. Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York: Basic Books.)
    4. 曹家榮(2008)。〈MSN Messenger 的媒介訊息:從符擔性看MSN人際關係展演〉,《資訊社會研究》,14:133-166。
    5. 游曉貞、陳國祥、邱上嘉(2006)。〈直接知覺論在產品設計應用與審視〉,《設計學報》,11:13-27。
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 劉彥廷(2012)。大學生的網路使用行為與校園經驗及學習發展成果之相關研究 -以批踢踢實業坊使用者為例。臺灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系學位論文。2012。1-224。
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