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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 168 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王欣蘭(2008)。臺北縣特色學校校長轉型領導行為與學校創新經營關係之研究。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士班論文,未出版,新北市。
  2. 吳清山(2004)。學校創新經營理念與策略。教師天地,128,30-44。
  3. 吳清山、林天祐(2003)。教育名詞:創新經營。教育資料與研究,53,134-135。
  4. 吳清山、林天祐(2009)。教育名詞:特色學校。教育資料與研究,88,145-146。
  5. 李香美(2007)。臺北市地方教育發展基金之研究。國立臺灣大學政治學研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺北市。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 蘇明俊(2011)。新北市特色小學經營效率之研究:資料包絡分析法的應用。政治大學學校行政碩士在職專班學位論文。2011。1-141。
  2. 王雅芳(2012)。國民小學校長專業領導行為、學校內部社區感與學校效能之研究。中正大學教育學研究所學位論文。2012。1-332。
  3. 邱瀞瑩(2012)。國民中學學校教師會運作策略、運作功能與學校效能相關之研究。臺灣師範大學工業教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-129。
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