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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 63 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 林國明、陳東升(2003),〈公民會議與審議民主:全民健保的公民參與經驗〉,《臺灣社會學》,第6期,頁61-68。
    2. 周聖心(2005),《從個人學習到公共參與之轉化歷程-以永和社區大學公共性社團學員為例》,國立臺灣師範大學社會教育學系碩士論文,未出版。
    3. 莊耀嘉、王重鳴譯(2001),E. R. Smith and D. M. Mackie著,《社會心理學》,台北:桂冠。
    4. 陳東升(2006),〈審議民主的限制-臺灣公民會議的經驗〉,《臺灣民主季刊》,第3卷,第1期,頁77-104。
    5. 黃東益(2004),〈電子化政府與商議式民主之實踐?〉,《臺灣民主季刊》,第一卷,第四期。
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 簡乃欣(2009)。高中職種子教師對審議民主融入課程的觀點研究。臺灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系學位論文。2009。1-256。
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