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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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  1. 林 斌(2009)。臺日教師組織政策參與機制之比較研究-政策網絡的觀點。當代教育研究,17(4),103-147。
  2. 林佩瑾(2010)。教師組織在教師專業的意義:英國教師組織的發展以及對台灣教師會的啟示。國立暨南國際大學教育學院比較教育學系碩士論文,未出版,南投縣。
  3. 林政昌(2004)。國民中小學教育替代役人力資源管理策略與運作成效關係之研究-以高屏二縣為例。國立高雄師範大學教育學系碩士論文,未出版,高雄市。
  4. 洪美珠(2004)。影響社區健康營造中心運作成效因素之探討。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士論文,未出版,臺北市。
  5. 洪振廷(2008)。學校教師會功能之探討-以苗栗縣建國國中為例。靜宜大學管理碩士在職專班,未出版,臺中縣。
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