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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 106 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 于乃茂,台灣自行車產業市場結構、行為與績效之研究,臺灣大學經濟學研究所碩士論文,2004年。
  2. 14. 李芳齡譯,Mark W. Johnson著,創新者的成長指南,天下雜誌,2008年。
  3. 19. 周詩穎,兩岸行銷通路型態與結構影響因素之研究 —以自行車產業為例,中原大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,2005年。
  4. 25. 徐小波編著,智慧財產商品化,經濟部智慧財產局,2006年。
  5. 36. 葉斯水,台灣自行車產業發展之回顧與前瞻,元智大學管理研究所碩士論文,2005年。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 徐伊嫻(2009)。從OEM/ODM到OBM的轉型之研究–動態能力的觀點。政治大學科技管理研究所學位論文。2009。1-152。
  2. 古秀敏(2010)。兩岸傳統產業公司治理與經營績效關聯性比較。政治大學會計研究所學位論文。2010。1-100。
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