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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 74 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳復新(2003),人力資源管理。臺北:華泰文化。
  2. 胡龍騰、潘中道等譯(2000),研究方法:步驟化學習指南,Ranjit Kumar著,臺北:學富文化。
  3. 范?娟(1994),「深?訪談簡介」,戶外遊憩研究,第7卷第2期,臺北:中華民國戶外遊憩學會。
  4. 許士軍(1990),管理學。臺北:華泰書局。
  5. 李怡芬(2005),組織文化、領導風格與員工工作投入關係之研究。桃園:元智大學管理研究所碩士論文。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 顧正鈞(2013)。組織文化與領導風格探討─以台灣蘋果日報為例。淡江大學管理科學學系企業經營碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-89。 
  2. 劉文昇(2010)。分駐(派出)所所長領導風格與基層員警工作士氣之研究─以臺東縣警察局為例。臺東大學進修部公共事務碩(假日)學位論文。2010。1-113。 
  3. 謝龍富(2009)。國道公路警察專業角色與功能之研究。政治大學行政管理碩士學程學位論文。2009。1-221。
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